Contents

**1. Introduction**

1.1 Statistics and Data

1.2 Sampling

1.3 Lying with Statistics and Percentages

1.4 Observational Studies and Experiments

**2. Descriptive Statistics**

2.1 Averages

2.2 Range, Standard Deviation, and Variance

2.3 Measures of Relative Standing: z-scores

2.4 Measures of Relative Standing: Quartiles, Percentiles, and Box Plots

2.5 Weighted Averages and Simpson’s Paradox

**3. Statistical Tables and Graphs**

3.1 Frequency Distributions

3.2 Histograms

3.3 Other Graphs for Quantitative Data

3.4 Tables and Graphs for Qualitative Data

**4. Introduction to Probability**

4.1 Basics

4.2 Conditional Probability

4.3 The Addition Rule

4.4 The Multiplication Rule

4.5 One Bad Apple – Probabilities of At Least One

**5. Discrete Probability Distributions – Binomial and Geometric Distributions**

5.1 Discrete Random Variables and Probability Distibutions

5.2 Binomial Probability Distributions

5.3 Mean and Standard Deviation of a Binomial Distribution

5.4 The Geometric Distribution

**6. Continuous Probability Distributions – Normal Distributions**

6.1 Continuous Random Variables and the Standard Normal Distribution

6.2 Normal Distributions in General

6.3 Sampling Distributions

6.4 The Central Limit Theorem

6.5 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution

**7. Point Estimates and Confidence Intervals**

7.1 Introduction to Confidence Intervals

7.2 Estimating a Population Mean and Sample Size (σ known)

7.3 Estimating a Population Proportion and Sample Size

7.4 Estimating a Population Mean (σ unknown)

7.5 A Summary and Some Loose Ends

**8. Hypothesis Testing – One Sample**

8.1 Foundations of Hypothesis Testing

8.2 Hypothesis Tests About a Proportion

8.3 Hypothesis Tests About a Mean: σ Not Known

8.4 Hypothesis Tests About a Mean: σ Known (optional)

**9. Hypothesis Testing – Two Samples**

9.1 Hypothesis Tests for Mean Differences: Paired Data

9.2 Hypothesis Tests for Two Means: Independent Data

9.3 Hypothesis Tests for Two Proportions

**10. Correlation and Regression**

10.1 Correlation

10.2 Linear Regression

10.3 Linearity and Transformations

10.4 The Hypothesis Test Behind the Scenes

10.5 Multiple Linear Regression: Controlling for Variables – An Introduction

**11. Additional Hypothesis Tests**

11.1 Chi-Squared Test for Goodness of Fit

11.2 Chi-Squared Test of Independence

11.3 ANOVA – An Introduction